Lunenburg, incorporated in 1728, is governed by the open town meeting form of government. Occupying a land area of approximately 26.4 square miles, the Town is located in north central Massachusetts approximately 43 miles from Boston, it is bordered on the west by the Town of Ashby and the City of Fitchburg, on the south by the Town of Lancaster and the City of Leominster, on the east by the Town of Shirley, and on the north by the Town of Townsend.
Local legislative decisions are made by an open town meeting consisting of all registered voters in the Town. Subject to the legislative decisions made by town meeting, the affairs of the Town are generally administered by a board of five selectmen and a Town Manager. Local school affairs are administered by an elected school committee of seven persons while local taxes are assessed by a board of three assessors all appointed on an at-large basis for staggered three-year terms.